Quantum computing is a type of computing that uses quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. These phenomena allow a quantum computer to perform certain tasks, such as factorizing large numbers or searching databases, much faster than a classical computer.
The basic unit of information in classical computing is called a bit, which can have a value of either 0 or 1. In contrast, the basic unit of information in quantum computing is called a qubit. A qubit can represent not just 0 or 1, but any combination of 0 and 1 at the same time, a state known as superposition. Qubits can also be entangled, meaning that the state of one qubit can be correlated with the state of another qubit, even if they are separated by large distances.
Quantum computers are still in the early stages of development and are not yet widely available. However, they have the potential to solve certain problems much faster than classical computers, which could have important applications in fields such as finance, chemistry, and machine learning.